Although Jung concluded that many self-proclaimed trance mediums were really "channeling" some kind of repressed psychological disturbance, he would later state an unequivocal belief that some psychic phenomena, particularly telepathy, was genuine. Meanwhile, with his intellectual life now expanding rapidly, the adolescent Jung immersed himself in philosophy, religion, biology, zoology, medicine, and paleontology.
When he entered the University of Basel, in , his intended field of focus was medicine, but along the way he became captivated with the fledgling science of psychiatry. Here he was under the direction of the famous Eugen Bleuler , whose pioneering work in the field of schizophrenia suggested that psychological disturbances arose not only from physical deterioration of the brain, but also from the presence of conflicting beliefs and desires within the psyche.
Although a widely accepted notion now, it was a radical insight for its time. Also of influence on Jung was the work of Pierre Janet , under whom Jung studied briefly during a Paris seminar. Janet's extensive research with mental patients suggested that traumatic incidents generate powerful emotionally charged beliefs which, although forgotten or otherwise pushed out of conscious recall, often continue to exert a powerful influence on the individual's emotions and behaviors for many years.
Incorporating the work of both Bleuler and Janet, Jung began to formulate a new theory of the workings of the unconscious mind that would prove remarkably similar to that being simultaneously worked up by Sigmund Freud. Jung's theories were but one part of a whole new psychology, uniquely his own, in which the psyche was viewed as a dynamic growth-oriented entity poised between two powerful and complementary drives: the drive to learn and incorporate new perspectives differentiation , and the equally important drive toward creating a coherent, harmonious integration of all the inner aspects of the self integration.
This basic concept would form the foundation of much of Jung's later work and theory. In time he would expand this dialectic into a complex mandala-like view of the psyche and soul, in which a whole pantheon of paired opposites and complementary archetypes existed within the greater self. Meanwhile the persona, the self projected on the world, was but the tip of the iceberg on this larger, more complicated and often contradictory entity.
Building on Blueler and Janet, and later incorporating Freud, Jung believed that the successful expression and integration of the complex, interdependent elements within the larger self was often short-circuited by traumatic events and social or familial conditioning, repressing the individual's natural drives. The result was varying degrees of mental illness in the form of disabling neurosis or deep pathological psychosis. In his later role there as chief physician, he developed word association experiments to understand and study the phenomenon building upon the work of anthropologist and explorer Francis Galton.
These studies not only validated the earlier work of Janet, but also determined that material with related emotional content tended to become grouped together in the psyche, evolving into dynamic clusters, or "complexes. The conflicting impulses between these various complexes, whether repressed or not, created disorder in the psyche, expressed as anxiety, frustration, or inconsistencies in thought or behavior. More interesting still, Jung felt these complexes were often the source of the so-called spirits that "possessed" trance mediums and of the mysterious voices heard by psychotics.
Multiple personality disorder was simply a highly advanced case of the over-developed complex. Despite all this, Jung believed complexes were a normal part of a healthy, well-functioning mind. However, in the unhealthy mind one in which the drive toward integration was suppressed or otherwise thwarted , normal schisms and conflicts could spiral out of control, leading to deepening dysfunction -- both on personal and social levels.
When Jung published the results and interpretation of his early work in The Psychology of Dementia Praecox , he drew the attention of Sigmund Freud , who was fascinated by the parallels between Jung's theory of the unconscious and his own. The pair struck up a correspondence and eventually a close personal and working relationship. And Freud, older by some 20 years, took on a mentorship role, grooming Jung to become his successor as head of his new psychoanalytic movement.
But Jung was not cut out to be merely someone else's disciple. His ongoing attempts to reach new understandings of the mind became increasingly stymied by Freud's dogmatic insistence on his own interpretations, on his own version of psychoanalytic theory.
In time Jung tired of Freud's domineering and paternal manner.
It was impossible to limit his thinking to Freud's concept of psychological structure and equally impossible to accept Freud's reductionist assertion that all psychological troubles were rooted in sexual matters. Like Alfred Adler , Jung found himself splintering away to pursue his own theories. The form and detail of Jung's theory would prove sweeping and complex. His early exposure to psychic or spiritual phenomenon and his grounding in diverse spiritual teachings -- as well as his work with the profoundly mentally ill -- all conspired to give him a very different outlook than that held by Sigmund Freud.
It was the spiritual self, and drives arising from it, that created humankind's need to grow, experiment, and to achieve higher levels of purpose and development. It seems ironic that while Freud struggled to understand the impact of people's repressed sexual longings, Jung was indulging in a string of satisfying and meaningful affairs his wife had to tolerate one such woman, Toni Wolf, being a regular fixture at Sunday dinner whilst forging ahead to more mystical aspects of the mind.
But while Jung sensed that there were new levels yet to be understood in the structure of the psyche, but he could not fathom exactly what they were. However, in the fall of , not long after his break with Freud, Jung became plagued with peculiar and deeply disturbing dreams.
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First came a dream of a "monstrous flood" that spread across Europe, all the way to the Swiss Alps. He saw thousands of people drowning and civilization itself falling into ruin. Then the flood changed from a deluge of water to one of blood. Subsequent dreams featured images of eternal winter and rivers of blood. Jung, who had recorded and studied his own dreams since childhood, was at a loss to relate the bizarre nightmares to anything within his own personal life. He eventually began to fear that he was lapsing into psychosis. Several months later, the nationalism and extremism spreading across Germany escalated into terrible violence and repression and much later, Nazism and international war.
The dreams suddenly made a kind of sense, like symbolic premonitions of what was to come. But how could one account for such things? What mechanisms of the mind would allow him to envision such things, even at unconscious levels, before even the earliest stages of the events occurred?
Carl Jung Biography
But his earlier work on psychic phenomenon, while revealing considerable fraud, also hinted that human psyches were genuinely linked together in some way both subtle and profound. He called this shared body of knowledge and connection the Collective Unconscious. Jung's Collected Works 21 books by C. Gerhard Adler. Gerhard Adler Editor. Encountering Jung 7 books by C. Roderick Main Editor. Quotes by C. Who looks outside, dreams; who looks inside, awakes. See all C. Topics Mentioning This Author. Welcome back. Just a moment while we sign you in to your Goodreads account.
Carl Jung: Archetypes and Analytical Psychology - Psychologist World
Memories, Dreams, Reflections by C. Rate this book Clear rating 1 of 5 stars 2 of 5 stars 3 of 5 stars 4 of 5 stars 5 of 5 stars. Man and His Symbols by C. Jung , Joseph L. Want to Read saving… Error rating book. Modern Man in Search of a Soul 4. The Undiscovered Self by C.
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